Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Their Influence on Periodontal Disease Severity

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Muzammil Moin Ahmed, Dhafer S. Al Asmari, Abdullah Saleh Al Mutairi, Abdullah Saleh Al Rethaiaa


Objective:Majority of studies are prevalence based with minimal focus on clinical influence of herpesvirusesonperiodontitis. Understanding the influence of periodontal herpesviruses enables to explore the inapprehensible clinicopathological aspects of periodontitis, which could not be solely explained by bacterial aetiology alone. The aim of this study is to detect periodontal herpesviruses and determine their association with periodontal disease severity.

Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 subjects are divided into periodontitis (n=30) and healthy (n=30) groups.  GCF samples are analysed to detect DNAs of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and HCMV using mPCR. Clinical periodontal parameters are compared between virus positive and negative individuals to assess the severity of periodontitis.

Results:The prevalence of herpes viruses in healthy and periodontitis group is 13% (n=4) and 70% (n=21) respectively at p=0.001. In periodontitis group, the prevalence of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and HCMV is 47.61% (n=10), 9.52% (n=2), 14.28 (n=3) and 28.58% (n=6) respectively whereas only HSV-1(50%, n=2) and EBV (50%, n=2) were detected on healthy group with absence of HSV-2 and HCMV. There is significant association between presence of herpes viruses and periodontal disease severity with increase in clinical periodontal parameters.

Conclusion: Our study suggests the bilateral relationship between herpesviruses and periodontitis. It paves a logical ground for inclusion of antiviral therapy as an adjunct to periodontal debridement to eradicate herpes viral influence on periodontitis severity and progression. 

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