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The unfavorable radioecological situation that has developed in the modern world is one of the reasons for the emergence of structure functional rearrangements in the human and animal bodies, which have an adaptive character. Exceeding the adaptive capabilities of the body leads to the development of a number of systemic diseases that require the application of the remedies. This paper presents the results obtained in experimental studies on the directed change in the metabolism of E. coli bacteria of the PL-6 strain under the influence of ionizing radiation in order to develop an anti-radiation protective preparation. It was found that the effect on bacteria of increasing doses of gamma rays from 1 to 20 kGy led to a change in metabolism and was characterized by an increase in the synthesis of catalase by 2.07 times, peroxidase - by 4.17 times, carotene - by 4.15 times, SH-containing amino acid cysteine - by 5.1 times and nucleic acids - by 4.07 times. The adaptation of the stock culture to increasing doses of gamma rays was accompanied by the ability of the culture to synthesize the enzymes superoxide dismutase. Animals that were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 7.7 Gy (LD100/30) against the background of the use of a potential radioprotective preparation, there was a decrease in the severity of acute radiation syndrome and 71.4% safety of lethally irradiated animals with preventive use of radiomodified bacteria in the cell culture fluid and 85.7 % with the therapeutic use of substances of microbial origin based on E. coli "PL-6" (R) metabolites, with 100% death of animals in the radiation control group.