Neural Network Guided Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Model in Characterizing the Hot Spring Destination Experience Dynamics

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Chai Ching Tan


Hot spring destination studies are predominantly qualitative in nature in the extant literature, and thus, a quantitative approach, particularly with combined neural network (NN) simulation and structural equation modeling (SEM), is a significant value-addition, both academically and practically. On the practical aspects, this study, through comparative statistical analyses, have shown the significant roles of the “small brand” and “Big Brand” notions, the destination and visitors’ personalities, and the associative strengths between the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. On the theoretical front, stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) model is both NN-SEM supported, and for health-oriented tourist sites and services as hot spring waters, the value offerings play significant role, both to mediate the associative strengths between the destination stimulation factors and intention to revisit and loyalty, and to induce the active participation of visitors on their memorable experiences. Recommendations by means of implications are provided on how the hot spring destination can improve.

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