The Cosmological System of Mount Padang Site in Ancient Sundanese Manuscripts of the XVI Century AD

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Elis Suryani Nani Sumarlina et al.


Mount Padang, which is located in Karya Mukti Village, Campaka District, Southern Cianjur Regency, is really charming. Besides being unique, it has its own charm. In the form of a terraced hill, reaching approximately 136 meters in height, surrounded by piles of stones of various sizes, including stones that resemble gong, kecapi, saron, and kendang. Some of the stones depict kujang, tiger feet, and other animal carvings. At the top of the hill, there is a 'stone monument', which stands upright. At the bottom there is a river flow as a source of water, which makes it a cosmological characteristic of a sacred place or “Kabuyutan” of Priangan land. The Mount Padang site is not a place that stands alone, but belongs to a Sundanese cosmological spatial system that interacts with energy sources from the surrounding places, whether archaeological, geological, geomorphological, philological, anthropological, traditional historiography, as well as folklore. The physiographical arrangement around Mount Padang belongs to Kabuyutan of Mount Padang which is oriented towards Mount Gede, which is considered as “karuhun” (ancestral). The cosmology of Mount Padang as Kabuyutan, is in line with the script of Sang Hyang Hayu (SHH), that the spatial layout of the universe (cosmos) is divided into triumvirate form, which are: (1) the composition of the underworld, “saptapatala” (seven hells), (2) the earth where we take shelter or “madyapada”; and (3) the order of the upper world, “saptabuana” or “buanapitu”, the seven heavens. The place between saptapatala and saptabuana is called madyapada, namely pratiwi. The same thing is revealed in the Sanghyang Raga Dewata text, which tells of the process of creating the universe and all its contents. Likewise in the Sri Ajnyana text which tells of the process of the descent of humans to earth, in which it describes the structure of the cosmos. This paper tries to explore the cosmological system of the Mount Padang Site, studied through descriptive analytical research methods, with the method of philological studies, cosmological studies, and multidisciplinary cultural studies.

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