Broadcasting Industry in Malaysia: Must-Carry Rules for Public Interest – A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

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Asma Md. Isa, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, Muhammad Adnan Pitchan, Umi Hamidaton Mohd. Soffian Lee, Haslina Mohamed Hassan


This paper demonstrates a method of how to conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) and meta-analysis studies in social science, in particular for the communications and media field. The SLR is a process that allows collection of relevant empirical data on the must-carry rules topic in the broadcasting sector that fits the pre-specified eligibility criteria, and responds to the formulated research question. Meta-analysis is used in order to describe the information derived from summarizing data from several studies on the identified topic of interest. SLR techniques are employed in this study to further enhance the knowledge of communications and media studies that are associated to the regulatory framework in the broadcasting sector in Malaysia. The usual method has four basic steps: search (defined searching string and types of databases), evaluation (pre-defined literature inclusion and exclusion, and quality assessment criteria), synthesis (extraction and categorization of the data), reporting the analysis and discussion, and finally presenting the conclusions and recommendations for future direction. This paper also presents the strategies employed in conducting the SLR, namely, planning, execution and reporting. The paper also identifies the research protocol, stating the procedure, followed by analysis and discussion of the results. Finally, a few recommendations have been put forward at the end of this current SLR for the reference of future studies.

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