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In the competency-based approach, the development of critical thinking is fundamental for students to face society. In this sense, the objective of this paper was to analyze how the case study favors the development of critical thinking in school education. It focuses on the importance of this type of thinking in the construction of better citizens and therefore of a better society. It also collects and analyzes some concepts of critical thinking and determines the skills that are mobilized in it. The analysis has made it possible to find common aspects in the different conceptions put forward by scholars. However, it made it possible to discriminate and propose the five processes of the case study as a strategy to develop critical thinking (ECPC). The research made it possible to highlight the importance of the application of case studies as a strategy to favor critical thinking in students, taking as a starting point its correct application. In this sense, the teacher, in his role as mediator, plays a transcendental role because he needs to appropriate such a strategy and fundamentally be a critical thinker.