Cross-Linguistic Influence of Punjabi and Urdu in Learning English Prepositions

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Nadia Abdul Ghani, Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz, Dr. Muhammad Rashid Hafeez, Dr. Raza-E-Mustafa, Dr. Muhammad Ayub


Punjabi and Urdu are dominant languages in Punjab and Punjabi speakers use Punjabi in their daily communication as L1 and Urdu as L2 for their educational purposes. English is also used in Pakistan and it is considered as a guarantee for better opportunities in higher education, jobs, and careers. In Punjab, most of the public schools rely on Punjabi and Urdu as a medium for instruction due to the rural background and learning English as L3 is a bigger challenge for learners of these areas. Keeping this situation in mind, the study investigates the common properties of prepositions in Punjabi (L1), Urdu (L2), and English (L3) languages and also checks the influence of Punjabi (L1) and Urdu (L2) languages in learning English (L3) prepositions. For this purpose, the study utilizes the Linguistic Proximity Model to analyze the interference of both languages in L3 learning prepositions by using a quantitative method. The data are collected from 100 participants of public schools at the secondary level. Purposive sampling was applied to collect the data and the test was based on the translation of sentences both from Punjabi and Urdu to the English language to check the cross-linguistic influence of Punjabi and Urdu on English while learning prepositions. The study will help to understand the role of L1 and L2 in learning English (L3) prepositions and will facilitate the teachers and learners to overcome the difficulties related to the use of prepositions.


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