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This study aimed to investigate the causes of high-performing and low-performing secondary schools of the public sector. It was a qualitative research based on a case study design. Data were collected from multiple sources, e.g., administrative observation, documents, schools’ records, and 2 head teachers, 16 secondary school teachers, and 575 students of 10th class from the 2 secondary schools that were selected by applying purposive sampling technique with the assumption that both the schools had many similar characteristics. Data were collected by using a mixed-method technique via self-developed interview protocol and self-developed questionnaire. Both types of data were arranged, coded, entered into the computer to be analyzed. The quantitative data were analyzed by applying inferential statistics with the help of SPSS (version 20) and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis with the help of NVIVO (version 12) software. The result of the present research shows that the causes of high-performing schools’ good performance are the head teacher’s vision, leadership style, interpersonal relationship, instructional techniques of the head, and heads’ innovative mechanism of management style. From the teachers’ side, proper use of teachers’ pedagogical and classroom management techniques, teachers’ motivational techniques, assessment criteria, techniques of record-keeping, and teachers’ relationship with the students and their parents were key factors. From the students’ side, the causes of high performing school are creating students’ interest, school and classroom environment, teachers’ behavior, teachers’ triangulation with the students, and parents, and coaching system. The findings showed that the causes of low-performing schools’ substandard performance were the lack of or misuse of all the above-mentioned factors and the most common factor was found to be vague administrative observation and supervision.