A Comparative Study of Health Systems of Central Asian Countries and Mongolia Using Health Status and Availability of Resource Profiles

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Tumenjavkhlan Sosorburam, Yao Lan



After the collapse of the Soviet Union, member countries have undergone extensive changes. There are very few studies focused on their health system.  The study compared the health systems of the four Central Asian countries and Mongolia with selected indicators to provide an overview of the difference.


Selected indicators represent categories of socio-economic and health status, health expenditure, and availability of resources.


There is considerable variation in the comparison of the health status of the countries. The life expectancy at births increased in all countries, and it reached 69-73 years.

Some indicators show promising results such as infant mortality, which significantly reduced, but some healthcare indicators, such as male adult mortality and incidence of tuberculosis are worsened in some countries compared to the 1990s.

In terms of health financing, all countries increased their funding for health since the 1990s, but a share of out-of-pocket payments is higher than the recommended level. The highest level is in Tajikistan, where 68.4% of health expenditure is financed by out-of-pocket money. The numbers of human resources such as nurses and midwives shrinking overtimes, yet Uzbekistan is keeping the workforce above 11 per 1,000. In the technical resources category, Mongolia has more availability of MRI and CT scanners among the countries.


All the countries implemented the reforms. However, the countries show different results today. Out-of-pocket payments are increasing regardless of income level and despite the effort of increasing the total health expenditure from the governments. The comparison also showed that increased resource input is not necessarily correlated with better health status.

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